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SDG 10 – Reducing Inequalities

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At the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit in September 2015, representatives from 193 countries adopted the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as guiding principles for developing policies in UN member states to address 17 major global issues. These SDGs call for governments, businesses, and civil society to make a global commitment to achieve sustainable development by 2030 (“Agenda 2030”). SDG 10: Reducing Inequalities aims to reduce economic inequalities between and among countries, resulting in a more equal world. It does so by focusing on the income disparity between the bottom 40% and the top 1% of global income earners. Economic trends and indicators allow for a thorough examination of existing differences between groups, highlighting those who are most disadvantaged. The indicators that make up SDG 10 work together to ensure that low-income people and intersecting inequalities are reduced, resulting in a more equitable global system. The New York Times hosted the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals Interactive Roundtables on September 17th, 2018, with the goal of facilitating productive discussions on four SDGs and identifying actionable solutions to achieve those goals. The Reduced Inequalities roundtable drew a total of 28 people, including moderators, experts, business leaders, policy experts, and scribes from the Global Liberal Arts Alliance. Introductions and an overview of the SDG for Reduced Inequalities were given first. Following that, the moderator led an open discussion to identify actionable items for long-term change in the area of Reduced Inequalities.

Reduce the link between economic status and gender inequality.-
Integrating women into the economic sphere and paying them a fair wage are critical. Promoting the practice through nongovernmental organizations that can build on existing skills and teach business acumen is one way to economically empower women. When women’s pre-existing skills are leveraged, entrepreneurship becomes more feasible. Culinary skills, for example, can turn women into income earners, and any other skills they already have can be turned into businesses. Women can contribute to their communities and households by allowing them to become entrepreneurs. This type of training is important because it can help women who are new to the workforce or who have taken a leave of absence, such as maternity leave, gain confidence. SDG 5: Gender Equality overlaps with this recommendation.

Incorporate historically marginalized or disadvantaged groups into all aspects of economic activity and public life.-
Several employment, financial, and educational institutions have already implemented affirmative action policies or actions promoting the integration of historically marginalized identity groups. These strategies have been shown to reduce inequalities and expand opportunities for marginalized people. Financial institutions have the potential to reduce multiple inequalities in society while also benefiting marginalized people. These institutions can reduce gender and income disparities by providing microfinance to disadvantaged groups. They should evaluate loan applicants strategically to ensure that women and people with lower incomes are given preference.

Make education more accessible.-
With education serving as a leveler between groups, focusing on inclusion and implementing strategies to improve educational access for all is critical to achieving SDG 10. Many institutions, including public and private universities and schools, have already begun working to increase diversity in their classrooms by implementing income-blind admission policies, which consider applicants regardless of their socioeconomic status. Many people, however, still find it difficult to pursue further education rather than immediately entering the workforce. As a result, developing independent projects to supplement public education is critical.

Protocols for data collection and analysis should be improved.-
The lack of data that member states have submitted for review on each of the targets and indicators is one of the most significant roadblocks to achieving SDG 10. As a result, improving data collection and analysis protocols will aid the UN and other bodies conducting reviews in better comprehending and translating data. Many member states face significant resource constraints in their ability to collect and submit data accurately. As a result, civil society and non-governmental organizations with a stake in reducing inequalities should be included in the development of future targets to assist in filling data reporting gaps. These organizations can also be used to allocate resources to help develop protocols for states with limited resources to collect, report, and analyze data, as well as to streamline the state-to-state collaboration process.

Goal 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries
10.1 Achieve and sustain income growth for the bottom 40% of the population at a rate faster than the national average by 2030.

10.2 Empower and promote social, economic, and political inclusion of all people by 2030, regardless of their age, gender, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion, or economic or other status.

10.3 Ensure equal opportunity and reduce outcomes inequalities, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies, and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies, and action.

10.4 Adopt policies, particularly fiscal, wage, and social protection policies, to achieve greater equality over time.
10.5 Strengthen the regulation and oversight of global financial markets and institutions, as well as the enforcement of existing regulations.

10.6 Ensure that developing countries have a stronger voice and representation in global economic and financial decision-making in order to create more effective, credible, accountable, and legitimate institutions.

10.7 Promote orderly, safe, regular, and responsible human migration and mobility, including through the implementation of well-managed migration policies.

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