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Sustainable Development Goal 3, “Good Health & Well-Being”

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The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which are part of Transforming our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, are a set of 17 global goals aimed at eradicating poverty, protecting the environment, and ensuring everyone’s prosperity and good health. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) propose a new sustainable development agenda to be achieved over the next 15 years. SDG 3, “good health and well-being,” in particular “ensuring a healthy life and promoting the well-being of people of all ages,” combines two main ideas:
1) Health is a universal right, but it is also an insurance capital that enables nations to settle on long-term development; and
2) Welfare is a state influenced by a variety of physical and psychological factors, which can be considered separately or in combination.
Physical well-being is determined by overall health and the fulfillment of the body’s basic needs, whereas psychological well-being is a more abstract concept that is determined by personal evaluations and can include social or economic success, pleasure, and harmony with oneself, others, or the environment. Individual and collective health and well-being are extraordinary resources that influence social and economic development, resulting in improved health and well-being for those who support it. The International Council for Science and the International Social Science Council conducted a critical analysis that identifies the links between SDG and other SDGs, where health and well-being are considered factors or assets derived from the SDGs’ actions. The SDGs, which went into effect in 2015, have 17 objectives and 169 goals, 13 (9 goals and 4 implementation means) of which are related to health and well-being and may be informed by fewer than 169 indicators. According to a recent report from the Sustainable Development Solutions Network, only 84 indicators should be used, and indicator selection is still ongoing. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals Report 2017 recently reviewed progress toward these 17 goals, highlighting both the accomplishments and the challenges that remain to be overcome in order to meet the agenda.
SDG 3 has seen unprecedented progress, particularly in terms of poverty reduction, access to safe drinking water for the world’s poorest countries, and the fight against the HIV/AIDS pandemic, malaria, and tuberculosis. Despite the fact that the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) are being implemented globally, progress must be accelerated, particularly in regions with the highest disease burdens, such as Sub-Saharan Africa. SDG 3 relates to almost all other goals, either because it directly or indirectly influences them or because the situations and conditions of those goals have obvious repercussions on the health and well-being of individuals and populations. Climate change will have evident health repercussions, and good health should favor a better resilience of the affected populations. The phenomenon of massive urbanization in different regions of the world will affect the health status of populations, particularly due to air pollution and urban heat island phenomena.
Schistosomiasis is resurfacing in various African and East Asian countries today, despite the fact that it was thought to be under control in the 1990s. Despite the undeniable improvement in socioeconomic and sanitary conditions in those tropical areas of the world, the development of snail species that host human and animal schistosome larvae has been aided by human-created or modified habitats. Rice field cultures, dams, and aquaculture production also benefit snails, resulting in increased schistosome transmission and human and animal morbidity and mortality. Molluscicides can help reduce snail populations in the field, but they can also contribute to further biodiversity losses and have serious health consequences in humans. The implementation of SDG 3 of “good health and well-being” simultaneously addresses the biomedical field and health-related research in a broad sense, addressing not only their topics and habits, but also their relationships with civil society. SDG 3 challenges and sometimes revolutionizes disciplinary knowledge; it calls for greater interdisciplinarity, based on the One Health/EcoHealth approach, which already exists in the fields of ecology and evolutionary biology, to meet the challenges and compromises of new scientific research and practice directions. This approach is critical for achieving SDG 3’s agenda, as there is an almost complete lack of adequate data, particularly in tropical and southern countries, necessitating a major reorganization of animal health, public health, and welfare statistics monitoring, surveillance, and tracing systems. Certain aspects, such as new health technologies (e.g., telemedicine) and individual and collegial expertise, were not discussed in depth in this review, and we only touched on the issue of school and university education in relation to the problems of sustainable development and the defined goals for achieving it briefly. The idea of establishing pilot schools under the auspices of the United Nations in various countries around the world, particularly in developing countries, has yet to be realized. This emerging concept will allow younger generations, who will be the new decision-makers, to become more aware of current issues that may have a significant impact on their own future. This is a powerful teaching method that allows students to participate in action plans. In fact, the scientific and medical approaches we employ were passed down from a previous era, and they organize our interactions with decision-makers, politicians, and citizens by first and foremost placing the discipline in context.

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